Viết theo cấu trúc câu bị động

Viết theo cấu trúc câu bị động

Cấu trúc chung nhất của bị động: BE + P2

 

ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
S + V-S/ES + O

Someone cleans the floor every day.

S + IS/AM/ARE + P2

The floor is cleaned every day.

S + IS/AM/ARE + V-ING +O

We are redesigning our website at the moment.

S + IS/AM/ARE + BEING + P2

Our website is being redesigned at the moment.

S + HAVE/HAS+ P2+O

Someone has found a small design on our latest chip.

S + HAVE/HAS + BEEN+P2

A small design fault has been found on our latest chip.

S + V-ED + O

Our boss founded the company in London in 1848.

S + WAS/WERE + P2

Our company was foundedin London in 1848.

S + WAS/WERE + V-ING +O

We only noticed the mistakes when we were printing the brochures.

S + WAS/WERE + BEING + P2

We only noticed the mistakes when the brochures were being printed.

S + HAD + P2+O

They emailed us to say that they had delayed the shipment.

 

S + HAD + BEEN+P2

They emailed us to say that the shipment had been delayed.

None of their orders had been fulfilled.

MODAL VERBS (CAN, COULD, MAY…) + V

They will deliver the goods next Tuesday.

MODAL VERBS + BE + DONE

The goods will be deliverednext Tuesday.

BE GOING TO V

They are going to delay the shipment.

BE GOING TO BE + P2

The shipment is going to be delayed.

PERFECT INFINITIVE: MODAL VERB + HAVE + P2

Someone should have sentthe fax yesterday.

MODAL VERB + HAVE + BEEN + P2

 

The fax should have been sent yesterday.

 

Lưu ý:

  • Chủ ngữ của câu bị động (S) là tân ngữ (O) của câu chủ động
  • Khi có địa điểm và thời gian trong câu thì thứ tự sẽ là

S + V + O + place + time

  • Khi chủ ngữ của câu chủ động là các đại từ không xác định hoặc nghĩa chung chung như they, someone, someboby, people… thì không cần phải để by them, by someone, by somebody…
  • Kiểm tra động từ “to be” được chia ở câu mới theo chủ ngữ số ít hay số nhiều

Bài tập:

Change the following sentences into passive voice

  1. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.

The wine should be opened about three hours before it is used.

Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice.

Steps had been cut in the ice by previous climbers.
  1. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.

My shoes had been cleaned and my suit brushed/ had been brushed.
  1. We use this room only on special occasions.

This room is only used on special occasions.
  1. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.

Nails must not be hammered into the walls without permission.
  1. In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles.

In some districts pigs are used to find truffles by farmers.
  1. Someone switched on a light and opened the door.

A light was switched on and the door opened/ was opened.
  1. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.

The picture had been slashed with a knife.
  1. They are pulling down the old theatre.

The old theatre is being pulled down.
  1. Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in?

Why wasn’t the roof mended before it fell in?
  1. The mob broke all the shop windows in recent riots.

All the shop windows were broken in recent riots by the mob.
  1. The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not returning books.

The librarian said that a new system was being started because books were not being returned.
  1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime.

Each of us was asked about his movements on the night of the crime by the police.
  1. Someone will serve refreshments.

Refreshments will be served.
  1. People must not leave bicycles in the hall.

Bicylces must not be left in the hall.
  1. Members may keep books for three weeks. After that they must return them.

Books may be kept for three weeks by members. After that they must be returned.
  1. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door.

An enormous hole had been cut in the steel door by the burglars.
  1.  I’ve bought a harp. They are delivering it this afternoon.

I’ve bought a harp. It is being delivered this afternoon.

Someone has already told him to report for duty at six.

He has already been told to report for duty at six

They rang the church bells as a flood warning

The church bells were rung as a flood warning.